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Glossary beginning with P

Select the first letter of the term you're looking for from above to begin.
P.V.C. search for term

Polyvinyl chloride is the third most widely produced polymer and is used in construction for piping and in profile applications such as doors and windows.

Pad search for term

Often refers to a thick piece of soft material used to absorb friction, change the shape of something, or hold liquid, in art, it often refers to a book or binder composed of multiple pages, sometimes ruled, that are connected together on one end and used for recording notes, writing, drawing, or scrapbooking.

Paddle search for term

A flat piece of wood used to beat damp clay to remove air pockets.

Page search for term

One half of a leaf, or sheet of paper in a publication, letter, book, or manuscript.

Paint Gauge search for term

Instrument designed to measure the thickness of a paint film.

Paint Pen search for term

A type of marker pen that is used to creat permanent writing on a variety of surfaces and uses paint as the primary type of ink. Can require some shaking before use.

Paint Remover search for term

A chemical that softens old paint or varnish and permits it to be easily scraped off.

Paint Settling search for term

The dropping or settling of the solids in a reduced or unreduced paint to the bottom of a paint gun or can.

Paint Stripper search for term

A chemical that softens old paint or varnish and permits it to be easily scraped off.

Painterly search for term

A painting technique in which forms are created with patches of color that exploit color and tonal ranges. The opposite approach is known as linear in which things are represented in terms of contour and with precise edges.

Pale search for term

Colors with a high lightness and a low saturation.

Palette search for term

The surface which a painter will mix his colors. Also the term used for the range of colors used by an artist.

Palette Knife search for term

A knife with a spatulate flexible blade for applying or scraping off paint. Also used for mixing, applying, and cleaning up paints.

Paper Cutter search for term

A tool designed to cut a large set of paper at once with a perfectly straight edge.

Papercraft search for term

An artform that involves the creation of models that are constructed mainly from sheets of heavy paper, boards, or foam.

Papier Mache search for term

A technique that consists of paper pieces of pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, and then bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste. French for "chewed paper."

Papier Mâché search for term

A technique that consists of paper pieces of pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, and then bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste. French for "chewed paper."

Parallel search for term

Two or more straight lines or edges on the same plane that even extended ad infinitum will not intersect and have the same direction.

Parallel Rule search for term

A drafting instrument used by navigators to draw parallel lines on charts.

Parquetry search for term

Inlay or veneers of wood to form various geometric designs.

Pass search for term

The motion of a spray gun in one direction only.

Pastel search for term

Pigments mixed with a dried gum pressed into a stick form. Similar to chalk, but less tightly bound.

Pastel Colors search for term

A colors with a low level of saturation and high level of lightness.

Pastel Pencil search for term

An art medium that consists of a pure powdered pigment and a binder, usually a gum, that is then pressed into a core and covered with a wooden case, similar to a graphite pencil.

Pastels search for term

Pigments mixed with a dried gum pressed into a stick form. Similar to chalk, but less tightly bound.

Pastiglia search for term

Low relief effects produced by controlled brushing and dripping of gesso onto a support.

Pastose search for term

The adjective form of impasto; Thickly painted.

Patching Plaster search for term

A special plaster made for repairing plaster walls.

Patina search for term

Originally the green brown encrustation that forms on oxidized bronze, the term now includes the natural effects of aging on an exposed surface.

Pattern search for term

The repetition of an object or design, also called a motif in design.

Pearlescent search for term

A kind of light that occurs in particular during the "Magic Hour" or the hour before sunset and after sunrise where the sun casts a "pearl-like" glow on everything.

Peeling search for term

Loss of adhesion between one coat of paint to succeeding coats or coatings.

Pellicle search for term

A thin skin that forms on oil paint as it dries.

Pencil search for term

A pigmented core that is surrounded by a wooden case, usually refers to a graphite pencil, many other types of pencil do exist including colored pencils, pastel pencils, carbon pencils, grease pencil, and more.

Pencil Extender search for term

An item devised to give consumers the ability to use the very last big of their pencil in stub form without awkwardly holding the small stub in their hand by itself.

Pencils search for term

A pigmented core that is surrounded by a wooden case, usually refers to a graphite pencil, many other types of pencil do exist including colored pencils, pastel pencils, carbon pencils, grease pencil, and more.

Penetrating Finish search for term

A finish that sinks into the surface it is applied to, as opposed to settling on the surface, or coating.

Pentimento search for term

A condition of old paintings where lead-containing pigments become more transparent over time, revealing earlier layers of paint.

Penumbra search for term

A partial shadow between regions of complete shadow and complete illumination. A partial shadow intended to illustrate the roundness or fullness of an object, especially one in which a full shadow makes more logical sense but does not fit visually, such as shadowing in a sphere.

Perforated search for term

Pierced or with a hole or holes in it, typically a row of small holes in paper or other flat material designed so that they may be easily torn off.

Permanence search for term

The degree to which something will fade, bleed, or otherwise lose it's color or shape.

Permanency search for term

The degree to which something will fade, bleed, or otherwise lose it's color or shape.

Permanent Pigment search for term

Any pigment which can be expected to last without essential change and are unlikely to deteriorate in normal light under most atmospheric conditions.

Perpendicular search for term

Intersecting at or forming a perfect right angle, although often simply means vertical.

Persistance of Vision search for term

An optical illusion in which a rapid succession of images will blur together and produce the illusion of actual motion, such as seen in an animation or the speedy succession of images that make up film and television.

Perspective search for term

The technique artists use to project an illusion of depth onto a two-dimensional surface.

Pestle search for term

A tool used to crush or grind substances inside of a mortar.

pH search for term

A measure of the concentration of acidity versus alkalinity. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14 with each number indicating a ten-fold increase, 7 is neutral, 1 is the most acidic, and 15 is the most alkaline.

Phosphorescent search for term

Being luminous, or glowing from within, at temperatures lower than standard incandescense, either after exposure to light or other radiation or by slow oxidation.

Photochemically Reactive search for term

Organic solvents that react with ultra violet light to form oxidants such as ozone and smog.

Photogram search for term

A photographic print made by placing an arrangement of objects on top of photosensitive paper and exposing it to light.

Photography search for term

The art of producing a permanent image by capturing light.

Pickle search for term

An acid solution in which metals are soaked in an effort to either clean them or to create an artificial patina.

Piece Mold search for term

A mold made in interlocking sections used to make several casts since the mold can be easily removed seperately without damage.

Pied de Biche search for term

A claw chisel with two long points, called a calcagnolo in Italy.

Pigment search for term

Finely powdered particles with inherent color that can be mixed with binders to form paint or ink.

Pigments search for term

Finely powdered particles with inherent color that can be mixed with binders to form paint or ink.

Piling search for term

A defect of wet coating film in which the coating does not level out smoothly due to the application of too much coating in one spot.

Pin search for term

A device used for fastening objects or material together that consists of a long body and a sharp tip made of steel or other metals and a larger head often made of plastic.

Pin-Hole search for term

Paint imperfection resembling a hole about the size of the head of a straight pin that is caused by either solvent entrapment or air bubbles.

Pinstriping search for term

A set of very thin stripes in a design either on fabric or a surface such as a car or motorcycle. In the case of vehicles, pinstriping has become it's own art form with it's own stylistic choices and with designs that are often be inspired by popular culture in general.

Pitch search for term

Any of a variety of resinous substances obtained from the distillation of coal tar, wood tar, or petroleum that is used for waterproofing, roofing, caulking, and paving.

Pitcher search for term

A broad stone carving chisel used to strike off pieces in the roughing out phase.

Pitting search for term

A condition in which the film is marked by fine holes which do not go through to the substrate.

Planography search for term

A process for printing from a smooth surface.

Plaster search for term

Usually refers to a mixture of powdered and head-treated gypsum which can be mixed with water and hardened to a smooth solid that will not shrink or lose volume without the use of heat.

Plaster of Paris search for term

Usually refers to a mixture of powdered and head-treated gypsum which can be mixed with water and hardened to a smooth solid that will not shrink or lose volume without the use of heat.

Plasticity search for term

The quality of a material which is easily manipulated or pressed into a desired shape; malleable yet still holding it's shape.

Plasticizer search for term

Ingredients added to paint to either make it flow or be easily redissolved.

Plate search for term

A flat, rigid object of uniform thickness, sometimes referring to a sheet of material prepared to be inked in order to make prints.

Plein Air search for term

A technique of painting done directly outdoors in front of the subject. French for "open air".

PlexiGlas search for term

A trademarked acrylic plastic available in sheets or in rod form and usually transparent or translucent but is also available in multiple colors.

Ply search for term

A single layer of paper, used to refer to when several sheets are adhered together to form a board.

Plywood search for term

Pieces of wood made of three or more layers of veneer joined with glue and laid with the grain of adjoining piles at right angles.

Pochade search for term

A small colored sketch, usually in oil paint, often a rough landscape produced outside the studio with the intent of using it in a later work. A pochade box is a portable container used for carrying painting supplies on field trips.

Point of View search for term

The direction or position of the viewer's gaze.

Pointer search for term

A device for sharpening pencils or leads that have a 2.0mm diameter lead.

Pointing search for term

A means of scaling while carving a large piece, pointing is a framework of measurements laid out upon a sculptures surface usually by use of a pointing machine which lays metal arms around a piece and allows measurements to be made directly between given points.

Pole Sander search for term

A long pole with a swiveling plate to which sandpaper is attached. Used to sand high or out of reach walls or ceilings.

Polish search for term

To impart a very smooth finish to a surface, or such a finish itself, or the material which produces such a surface.

Polycarbonate search for term

Any of a class of thermoplastics characterized by high-impact strength, light weight, and flexibility, and used in moulding materials, laminates, etc.

Polychrome search for term

Multicolored chrome, usually a term to describe sculptural or decorative objects finished with multiple colors of paint or glazes.

Polyethylene search for term

An inert but flexible plastic that is often transparent or translucent and commonly used to make protective sleeves for photographic materials.

Polymer search for term

A series of monomers strung together to form a large molecule or macromolecule with a variety of uses ranging from making shellacs, or styrofoam to becoming vinyls, plastics, or latex rubber.

Polymerization search for term

The interlocking of molecules by chemical reaction to produce very large molecules. The process of making plastics and plastic-based resins.

Polypropylene search for term

A plastic material highly suitable for acid-free archival storage.

Polyropylene search for term

A plastic material highly suitable for acid-free archival storage.

Polyurethane search for term

Any of various polymers containing urethane that are typically used in resins, coatings, adhesives, fibers, and foams for padding and isulation.

Polyurethanes search for term

Any of various polymers containing urethane that are typically used in resins, coatings, adhesives, fibers, and foams for padding and isulation.

Polyvinyl Acetate search for term

A synthetic resin used as a medium or a varnish.

Polyvinyl Alcohol search for term

A thick white liquid which dries to a tough clear plastic skin and is commonly used as an adhesive.

Polyvinyl Chloride search for term

A synthetic resin used in the binders of coatings that tends to discolor under UV radiation. Commonly called simply "vinyl".

Pop Corn Ceiling search for term

A type of ceiling paint that contains various chunks of filler or flocking material to give a textured finish and usually applied with a Flocking Spray Gun.

Poppy Oil search for term

A retarder that can be added to paint to extend drying time and to increase the colors fluidity and overall level of gloss. Colors mixed with poppy oil won't yellow as much as colors mixed with linseed oil.

Porcelain search for term

A hard, white ceramic body also known as china because of it's place of origin. This clay is made primarily of kaolin, a fine white clay, though sometimes any light colored translucent pottery will be referred to as porcelain, whether made of kaolin or not.

Porosity search for term

An indication of the amount of air that can pass through a material.

Porous search for term

An indication of the amount of air that can pass through a material, if something is porous, then a high amount of air can pass through it.

Portfolio search for term

A portable case for holding materials like loose drawings, photographs, or other images, can also refer to the materials collected in such a case, or an artists collective body of work.

Portrait search for term

A work of art that represents a specific person, group of people, or animal.

Positive search for term

In photography, an image having values and colors of light and dark areas of the image as seen in nature. In printmaking, a plate with light and dark areas as they would appear in nature.

Positive Space search for term

Space in an artwork that is filled with something such as lines, designs, color, or shapes. The opposite of negative space.

Post-Consumer Paint Management search for term

The following steps are recommended for dealing with post-consumer, or leftover, reuse as much as necessary for touch-ups, store properly in a temperature and moisture controlled area, donate or recycle whatever is possible, and dispose of properly as hazardous waste at your local hazardous waste facility which may require a specil drop-off day. Check with your local municipality for any recommendations for recycle stores or hazardous waste facilities.

Pot Hook search for term

A metal hook designed to easily hang paint cans to the rungs of a ladder.

Pot Life search for term

The amount of time a mixed material is considered workable.

Potlife search for term

The amount of time a mixed material is considered workable.

Potter's Knife search for term

A knife designed for claywork to fettle unwanted clay from the edges.

Potter's Wheel search for term

A revolving horizontal disk on which clay is shaped into pottery.

Pottery search for term

Objects which are made from fired clay, including earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain.

Powder Coating search for term

A 100% solid coating generally applied by an electrostatic process as a fine, dry powder to the surface and then heated above its melting point so the powder flows together and cures.

Powdered Charcoal search for term

Comes from wood that has been pulverized and then charred, it can be used to tone and create values. Ideal for use with a s tump chamois, or a soft eraser.

Power Roller search for term

A roller used for painting interior and exterior surfaces that contains a system to constantly feed a supply of paint into the roller and cut down on trips back to the bucket.

Precipitate search for term

An inert particle to which dyes can be attached without bleeding or migrating.

Presentation Case search for term

Similar to a portfolio in that they are large cases designed for carrying, protecting, and presenting works of art, but different in that they contain a ring binder and sheet protectors.

Preservative search for term

A material that prevents or inhibits the growth of microorganisms in organic mixtures.

Press search for term

A device used for evenly distributing the inko onto a print medium such as paper or cloth.

Press Molding search for term

A method of casting by pressing a sheet of clay into an open plaster mold.

Pressure Pot search for term

A sealed paint cup with a paint gun which puts a measured amount of air pressure into it which then forces the paint to the gun for atomization.

Pressure Sensitive search for term

Responsive to pressure, specifically, adhesion or sealing under the influence of pressure alone, normally used in the form of an adhesive tape.

Pressure Treatment search for term

A factory process of using pressure to force preservatives into wood.

Primary Color search for term

Colors from which it is possible to mix all the other colors of the spectrum, red, yellow, and blue.

Prime search for term

The act of applying a base coat, or primer to a support in order to provide more "tooth" for the paint to adhere to.

Prime Coat search for term

The first coat or undercoat that helps bind the copcoat to the substrate.

Primer search for term

An undercoating material, usually white or gray, applied to a support to create a better bond so as to prepare it for painting.

Primer-Sealer search for term

An undercoat used to improve adhesion and color holdout with minimum filling properties.

Primer-Surfacer search for term

Undercoat used to fill imperfections, with primer qualities and maximum filling properties. Must be sanded after application.

Primings search for term

An undercoating material, usually white or gray, applied to a support to create a better bond so as to prepare it for painting.

Print Rack search for term

A large rack or holder that is designed to hold a number of prints vertically and allows for easy access to the finished works.

Propellant search for term

The gas used to expel materials from aerosol containers.

Proportion search for term

Refers to the comparative relationship of one part to another or to the whole with respect to size, quantity, degree, or volume.

Propulsion Sprayer search for term

A machine that spits or "flips" small droplets of paint which is supplied either by an attached reservoir or drawn from a paint can itself.

Protractor search for term

A semicircular tool for measurement and construction of angles usually containing a set of markers to indicate the degree of an angle that passes through.

Pry Bar search for term

A flat bar available in a variety of sizes with a notch designed to remove stubborn nails.

PSI search for term

Pounds per Square Inch: A unit of pressure or of stress that roughly correlates to the force of one pound applied to an area of one square inch.

Pthalates search for term

Any of various salts or esters of phthalic acid used especially as plasticizers and in solvents.

Puckered search for term

Small wrinkles, or buckles caused by a non-compatiblity of additives.

Pug search for term

In ceramics, to mix clay to plasticity.

Pug Mill search for term

A machine with revolving blades that chop, mix, and de-air ceramic clay.

Pulp search for term

Any cellulose plant fiber cleaned and then beaten into a wet mixture to form sheets of paper.

Pumice search for term

A light, porous rock formed from the foam of lava that is used as an abrasive in both solid and powdered forms. As a powder it can also be used as a polish for marble.

Punch search for term

A tool used to punch a ring, dot, or other decorative design into a hard surface substance, or a broad, pointed metal tool used in roughing out a stone carving.

Putty search for term

Materials used to fill imperfections in a substrate. Comosed of a lacquer or polyester resin and hten applied with a squeegee before being sanded smooth.

PVA search for term

Polyvinyl acetate, a synthetic resin used as a paint medium and varnish.

PVC search for term

Polyvinyl chloride is the third most widely produced polymer and is used in construction for piping and in profile applications such as doors and windows.

Pyrometer search for term

A device for measuring the temperature inside of a kiln.